“A novel class of N-aryl-2-acylindole human glucagon recep

“A novel class of N-aryl-2-acylindole human glucagon receptor (hGCGR) antagonists is reported. These compounds demonstrate good pharmacokinetic profiles in multiple preclinical species. One compound from this series, indole 33, is orally active in a transgenic murine pharmacodynamic model. Furthermore, a 1 mg/kg oral dose

of indole 33 lowers ambient glucose levels in an ob/ob/hGCGR transgenic murine diabetes model. This compound was deemed suitable for preclinical safety studies and was found to be well tolerated in an 8-day experimental rodent tolerability study. The combination of preclinical efficacy and safety observed with compound 33 highlights the potential of this class as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Digital image analysis (DIA) is increasingly implemented in histopathological research to facilitate truly quantitative measurements, decrease inter-observer variation and reduce hands-on JQ-EZ-05 order time. Originally, efforts were made to enable DIA to reproduce manually obtained results on histological slides optimized for light microscopy and the human eye. With improved technical Cilengitide methods and the acknowledgement that computerized readings are different from analysis by human eye, recognition has been achieved that to really empower DIA, histological slides must be optimized for the digital ‘eye’, with reproducible results correlating with clinical findings. In this

review, we focus on the basic expectations and requirements for DIA to gain wider use in histopathological research and diagnostics. With a reference to studies that specifically compare DIA with conventional methods, this review discusses reproducibility, application of stereology-based quantitative measurements, time consumption, optimization of histological slides,

regions of interest BEZ235 in vitro selection and recent developments in staining and imaging techniques.”
“Novelty-induced arousal has motivational effects and can reinforce behavior. The mechanisms by which novelty acts as a reinforcer are unknown. Novelty-induced arousal can be either rewarding or aversive dependent on its intensity and the preceding state of arousal. The brain’s histamine system has been implicated in both arousal and reinforcement. Histamine and histamine-1-receptor (H1R) agonists induced arousal and wakefulness in humans and rodents, e.g. by stimulating cortical acetylcholine (ACh) release. The H1R has also been implicated in processes of brain reward via interactions with the nigrostriatal- and mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems. We asked whether the motivational effects of novelty-induced arousal are compromised in H1R knockout (KO) mice. The H1R-KO mice failed to develop a conditioned place-preference induced by novel objects. Even though they still explore novel objects, their reinforcing value is diminished. Furthermore, they showed impaired novelty-induced alternation in the Y-maze.

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