Study designDescriptive study of cadaver material. MethodsKidneys were harvested from 10 horses. Magnetic resonance
imaging was performed after distension of the renal pelvis with an elastomer casting material, followed by visual inspection of corrosion casts. Transurethral ureteropyeloscopy of the upper urinary tract was performed in 4 horses, followed by histological and immunohistochemical examination selleck of the renal medulla and pelvis of 3 animals. ResultsThe equine renal pelvis was confirmed to be a funnel-shaped cavity, flattened dorsoventrally in the craniocaudal direction. Multiple papillary ducts (PDs) from the central part of the kidney open along a approximate to 3cm long renal crest that protrudes into the renal pelvis, while PDs from each kidney pole open into 2 long (5-10cm), narrow terminal recesses that terminate near Saracatinib in vitro either end of the renal crest. Openings of the terminal recesses narrow at their
junction with the renal pelvis and could be visualised during ureteropyeloscopy in all horses. Minor anatomical variation of the renal crest and terminal recess openings was observed. ConclusionsCurrent endoscopic equipment can be used to visualise the renal pelvis but could not be advanced into the terminal recesses. The findings of this study will help guide future diagnostic and therapeutic ureteropyeloscopy.”
“Novel polymeric micelles were synthesized based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and phospholipids (PEs) including 1,2-dimiristoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) and 1,2-distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE). The newly developed micelles evaluated for the physicochemical
properties including structural analysis by means of FTIR. Micelles were optimized for delivery of paclitaxel (PTX). The D-optimal design was applied in order to reach micelles with high entrapment efficiency (EE %) and minimum size, simultaneously. In this design the independent variables were the co-polymer type, the drug to polymer ratio and the formulation temperature, whereas the dependent variables were EE% and micelle size. The EE% of the optimized micelles was 46.8% and 59.9% for HA-DMPE and HA-DSPE micelles, respectively. BIIB057 molecular weight The size of the optimized micelles was in the range of around 250 nm. In vitro release study of the optimized micelles showed that PTX was released from HA-DMPE and HA-DSPE micelles as long as 23 h and 34 h, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies showed a conversion of the crystalline PTX molecules into the amorphous form in the micelles. In vivo real time image analysis showed that micellar system was mostly accumulated in the liver, spleen and heart. Accelerated stability studies represented that PTX loaded micelle formulations were stable both physically and chemically at least in 6 months’ time. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“AIM: Spigelian Hernia (SH) is a rare ventral hernia with a high incarceration and obstruction risk.