“A new polymer based

on thieno[3,4-f]isoindole-5,7

“A new polymer based

on thieno[3,4-f]isoindole-5,7-dione (TID) and benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b] dithiophene was designed and synthesized. The copolymer was characterized by elemental analysis, mTOR inhibitor gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra as well as electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. Compared to PBDTTPD, introducing the quinoid unit could elevate the HOMO energy level and lower the LUMO energy level of the polymer, and consequently, the band gap can be reduced very effectively. The electronic structures of the two polymers were also studied by DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G level. When a polymer solar cell (PSC) device was fabricated with an active layer of a blend of PBDTTID and PC61BM using 3% (v/v) diiodooctane (DIO) as a solvent additive, a high V-oc of 0.80 V was obtained, with a PCE of 3.12% under AM 1.5G conditions. The PBDTTID-based PSC device shows a slightly lower V-oc but better J(sc) and FF than the PBDTTPD-based PSC device, and the preliminary results indicate that TID will be a desirable building block for designing photovoltaic polymers with low-lying HOMO energy levels, as well as low band gaps.”
“Background: Geographic

information systems (GIS) mapping is fairly novel in describing utilization of health services. Our study is the first to use GIS to demonstrate that telehealth pediatric specialty service access would create substantial savings in travel time and distance compared with accessing a tertiary-care center for similar learn more HKI-272 solubility dmso service. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of telehealth encounters and geocoding of patients’ address were done with actual travel along road calculations to estimate travel time and

distance for a visit, compared with a hypothetical visit to the nearest tertiary-care site for the similar service. Results: Over a 2-year period, 255 telehealth visits by 171 patients with a variety of developmental and behavioral diagnoses were made to five telehealth sites. The median travel time and distance saved by accessing a telehealth site were 66.9 min and 63.8 miles, respectively. Of these patients, 12.3% had a median negative estimated savings of 52.7 min and 39.0 miles, which was associated with longer travel burden. Using the straight-line method underestimated the total time and distance traveled by approximately one-quarter of the actual distance (median distance of 20.5 miles underestimate relative to the median distance of 100.7 miles). Conclusions: Telehealth patients experienced significant reduction in travel times and distances. Patients/families would accept an increased burden of spatial accessibility in exchange for reduced burdens in other aspects of access, such as accommodation or acceptability when engaging telehealth services.

Our results highlight that investing in high testosterone levels

Our results highlight that investing in high testosterone levels at independence, a strategy that might enhance short-term recruitment probability in territorial species such as Red Grouse, has a fitness cost, and

can influence the resolution of the trade-off between reproduction and survival later in life.”
“Gastrointestinal helminths are reported from 3 species of Basiliscus lizards from Central America: Basiliscus basiliscus, Basiliscus plumifrons, and Basiliscus vittatus. Found were 1 species of AZD2014 supplier Digenea, Parallopharynx gonzalezi, and 4 species of Nematoda, Africana telfordi, Cyrtosomum scelopori, Falcaustra sp., and Physocephalus sp. Parallopharynx gonzalezi, in B. plumifrons and B. vittatus, and Africana telfordi and Physocephalus sp., in B. plumifrons, are new host records. Four new locality records are reported.”
“Objective: To describe a novel CONsolidated Standards

of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) adherence strategy implemented by the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (MO-DO) and to report its impact on the completeness of reporting of published trials. Study Design and Setting: The AJO-DO CONSORT adherence strategy, initiated in June 2011, involves active assessment of randomized clinical trial (RCT) reporting during the editorial process. The completeness of reporting CONSORT items was compared between trials submitted and published during the implementation selleck period (July 2011 to September 2013) and trials published between August 2007 and July 2009. Results: Of the 42 RCTs submitted (July 2011 to September 2013), 23 were considered for publication and assessed for completeness of reporting, seven of which were eventually published. For all published RCTs between 2007 and 2009 (n = 20), completeness of reporting by CONSORT item ranged from 0% to 100% (Median = 40%, interquartile range = 60%). All published trials in 2011-2013, reported 33 of 37 CONSORT (sub) items. Four CONSORT 2010 checklist items remained problematic even after implementation

of the adherence strategy: changes to methods (3b), changes to outcomes (6b) after the trial commenced, interim analysis (7b), and trial stopping (14b), which are typically only reported when applicable. Conclusion: Trials published following implementation of the AJO-DO CONSORT adherence strategy completely reported more CONSORT items than those published or selleck inhibitor submitted previously. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background Structural heart interventions require the use of relatively large-diameter delivery sheaths or latex nylon net balloon catheters, which results in a relatively large-diameter venous puncture point. At present, femoral venous hemostasis is achieved by manual compression. A temporary figure-of-eight subcutaneous suture has been introduced to achieve immediate postprocedural femoral venous hemostasis after using a bigger than = 24Fr sheath in an adult. This method is not well evaluated in children.

“Previous research from our laboratory in beef cattle sugg

“Previous research from our laboratory in beef cattle suggests that ovarian follicle maturity and subsequent fertility is influenced by length of proestrus across a range of follicle sizes. To test this hypothesis an animal model was used in which ovulation from similar sized follicles was induced following

either a long (LPE; similar to 2.25 days) or short (SPE; similar to 1.25 days) proestrus (interval from PGF(2 alpha) administration to a GnRH-induced LY3039478 inhibitor LH surge). Specific objectives were to compare pregnancy rates and luteal phase concentrations of progesterone (Experiment I) and to characterize preovulatory concentrations of estradiol, the GnRH-induced LH surge, and concentrations of progesterone in the subsequent estrous cycle (Experiment 2) between the LPE and www.selleckchem.com/products/btsa1.html SPE treatments. In Experiment 1, ovulation from follicles that were previously synchronized using follicular aspiration was induced with GnRH (Day 0) after either 2.25 days (LPE; n = 40) or 1.25 days (SPE; n = 38) of proestrus. Lactating and non-lactating cows were inseminated 12 h following GnRH administration. Ovulatory follicle diameter was similar between treatments. Pregnancy rates to AI were

greater (P < 0.01) in the LPE (50.0%) compared to the SPE (2.6%) treatment. The proportion of cows having a short luteal phase in the subsequent estrous cycle was greater (P < 0.01) in the SPE than LPE treatment. In cows with a luteal phase of normal length, timed-AI pregnancy rates and concentrations of progesterone in the subsequent luteal phase were greater (P < 0.05) in the LPE than SPE treatment. In Experiment 2, a similar experimental approach was taken with non-lactating beef cows and ovulation was induced following either 2.2 days (LPE; n = 8) or 1.2 days (SPE; n = 8) of proestrus. Ovulatory follicle diameter was similar between

treatments. Concentrations of estradiol during the proestrus period were CRT0066101 solubility dmso greater (P < 0.05) in the LPE than SPE treatment from Days -1.9 to Day 0 (GnRH administration). Concentration of LH during the GnRH-induced LH surge and concentrations of progesterone in the subsequent estrous cycle did not differ between treatments although there was a tendency (P = 0.10) for increased incidence of short luteal phases in the SPE treatment. In conclusion, decreasing the length of proestrus before induction of ovulation of a large follicle resulted in lesser pregnancy rates and an increased incidence of short luteal phases. The impact of a shortened proestrus on concentrations of progesterone in cows with luteal phases of normal length varied among experiments.

A specificity of the integration process into the human embryonic

A specificity of the integration process into the human embryonic teratoma tissues was indicated by the melanoma exclusively being found in areas compatible with condensed mesenchyme, similar to neural crest development. Here, also enhanced neovascularization was seen within the human mesenchymal tissues facing the BL melanoma growth.

Furthermore, in the hEST model an additional melanoma cell phenotype occurred, located at the border of, or infiltrating into, the surrounding human loose mesenchymal fibrous stroma. This BL population had a desmoplastic spindle-like appearance, Nutlin-3 cost with markers indicative of dedifferentiation and migration. The appearance of this apparently more aggressive phenotype, as well as the induction of human angiogenesis, shows specific interactions with the human embryonic microenvironment in the hEST model. In conclusion, these data provide exciting options for using the hEST model in molecular in vivo GSK1904529A in vivo studies

on differentiation, invasiveness, and malignancy of human melanoma, while analyzing species-specific reactions in vivo. [Cancer Res 2009;69(9):3746-54]“
“Most persons who receive hepatitis B vaccine during infancy will have a level of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) of < 10 IU/liter 10 to 15 years later; however, most will demonstrate immune memory by an anamnestic response to a vaccine challenge dose. To determine whether there was a difference in anamnestic response among college students vaccinated during infancy, we compared anti-HBsAg levels after a 20-mu g dose of Engerix-B in those with a residual anti-HBsAg level of 0 IU/liter and those with levels of 1 to 9 IU/liter. Anti-HBsAg was measured before (baseline) and 2 weeks after a challenge dose; a response was defined as a level of >= 10 IU/liter after the dose AZD7762 mw among those with < 10 IU/liter at the baseline. Of the 153 students who completed the study, 130 (85%) had an anti-HBsAg level of < 10 IU/liter at the baseline, 72 had a level of 0 IU/liter, and 58 had levels ranging from 1 to 9 IU/liter. Students with a levels of 1 to 9 IU/liter were more likely

to respond to the challenge dose than those with a baseline anti-HBsAg level of 0 IU/liter (83% versus 50%; P < 0.001). The presence of any detectable anti-HBsAg among persons vaccinated in the remote past may indicate the persistence of immune memory.”
“Alterations in the methylation of promoters of cancer-related genes are promising biomarkers for the early detection of disease. Compared with single methylation alteration, assessing combined methylation alterations can provide higher association with specific cancer. Here we use cationic conjugated polymer-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer to quantitatively analyse DNA methylation levels of seven colon cancer-related genes in a Chinese population.

“Resection of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM),

“Resection of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), epileptic focus, or glioma, ideally has a prerequisite of microscopic delineation of the lesion borders in relation to the normal gray and white matter click here that mediate critical functions.

Currently, Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used for preoperative mapping of critical function, whereas electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) is used for intraoperative mapping. For lesion delineation, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) are used preoperatively, whereas microscopy and histological sectioning are used intraoperatively. However, for lesions near eloquent cortex, these imaging techniques may lack sufficient resolution to define the relationship between the lesion and language function, and thus not accurately determine which patients will benefit from neurosurgical resection of the lesion without iatrogenic aphasia.\n\nOptical techniques such as intraoperative optical imaging of intrinsic signals (iOIS) show great promise for the precise functional mapping of cortices, as well as delineation of the borders of AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas. Here we first review the physiology of neuroimaging, and then

progress towards the validation and justification of using intraoperative optical techniques, especially in relation to neurosurgical planning of resection AVMs, epileptic

foci, and gliomas near or in eloquent Cortex. We conclude with a short description of potential Selleck Z-IETD-FMK novel intraoperative optical techniques. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators have proven efficacy in reducing mortality in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in both the primary and the secondary prevention settings. All randomized trials demonstrating this benefit have been conducted in outpatients with stable heart failure symptoms. Whether implantable cardioverter-defibrillators confer a benefit when implemented EPZ-6438 chemical structure in patients with chronically reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in the acute heart failure setting is unknown. The purpose of this document is to review the existing literature related to this subject.”
“The strong need for the discovery of novel disease markers together with the development of high-throughput techniques that provide highly sensitive analysis of protein content in tissues and bodily fluids, using proteomics, has opened the completely new chapter in biomarker discovery. The detection of biomarkers based on urinary proteome analysis is rapidly advancing and may provide new tools to improve non-invasive diagnostics, prognostics, and therapy enhancement.

Study designDescriptive study of cadaver material MethodsKidneys

Study designDescriptive study of cadaver material. MethodsKidneys were harvested from 10 horses. Magnetic resonance

imaging was performed after distension of the renal pelvis with an elastomer casting material, followed by visual inspection of corrosion casts. Transurethral ureteropyeloscopy of the upper urinary tract was performed in 4 horses, followed by histological and immunohistochemical examination selleck of the renal medulla and pelvis of 3 animals. ResultsThe equine renal pelvis was confirmed to be a funnel-shaped cavity, flattened dorsoventrally in the craniocaudal direction. Multiple papillary ducts (PDs) from the central part of the kidney open along a approximate to 3cm long renal crest that protrudes into the renal pelvis, while PDs from each kidney pole open into 2 long (5-10cm), narrow terminal recesses that terminate near Saracatinib in vitro either end of the renal crest. Openings of the terminal recesses narrow at their

junction with the renal pelvis and could be visualised during ureteropyeloscopy in all horses. Minor anatomical variation of the renal crest and terminal recess openings was observed. ConclusionsCurrent endoscopic equipment can be used to visualise the renal pelvis but could not be advanced into the terminal recesses. The findings of this study will help guide future diagnostic and therapeutic ureteropyeloscopy.”
“Novel polymeric micelles were synthesized based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and phospholipids (PEs) including 1,2-dimiristoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE) and 1,2-distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE). The newly developed micelles evaluated for the physicochemical

properties including structural analysis by means of FTIR. Micelles were optimized for delivery of paclitaxel (PTX). The D-optimal design was applied in order to reach micelles with high entrapment efficiency (EE %) and minimum size, simultaneously. In this design the independent variables were the co-polymer type, the drug to polymer ratio and the formulation temperature, whereas the dependent variables were EE% and micelle size. The EE% of the optimized micelles was 46.8% and 59.9% for HA-DMPE and HA-DSPE micelles, respectively. BIIB057 molecular weight The size of the optimized micelles was in the range of around 250 nm. In vitro release study of the optimized micelles showed that PTX was released from HA-DMPE and HA-DSPE micelles as long as 23 h and 34 h, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies showed a conversion of the crystalline PTX molecules into the amorphous form in the micelles. In vivo real time image analysis showed that micellar system was mostly accumulated in the liver, spleen and heart. Accelerated stability studies represented that PTX loaded micelle formulations were stable both physically and chemically at least in 6 months’ time. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“AIM: Spigelian Hernia (SH) is a rare ventral hernia with a high incarceration and obstruction risk.

We retrospectively evaluated information from nine Japanese patie

We retrospectively evaluated information from nine Japanese patients with disease onset reported as between 6 months and 12 years of age.

CAG repeat length in these patients ranged from 62 to 93. A strong correlation was confirmed for the age of disease onset, with the onset of epilepsy and involuntary movements, emergence of regression, and autonomic symptoms. The age at becoming wheelchair-bound and initiation of tube feeding also showed a significant correlation with CAG repeat length. This is the first report detailing this aspect of DRPLA focusing on the childhood-onset population. Earlier disease milestones Galardin manufacturer were revealed compared to the expected age based upon a previous report that contained data from the entire patient population, including adult-onset cases (Hasegawa et al. in Mov Disord 25:1694-1700, 2010). These results provide a basis for predicting the outcome

of patients in this particular age group, as well as for assessing the results of future clinical therapeutic trials.”
“Dehairing is one of the highly polluting operations in the leather industry. The conventional lime-sulfide process used for dehairing produces large amounts of sulfide, which poses serious toxicity and disposal problems. This operation also involves hair destruction, a process that leads to increased chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), Selleck ERK inhibitor and total suspended solid (TSS) loads in the effluent. With these concerns in mind, enzyme-assisted dehairing has often been proposed as an alternative method. The main enzyme preparations so far used involved keratinases. The present paper reports on the purification of an extracellular keratinase (KERUS) newly isolated from Brevibacillus brevis strain US575. Matrix selleck chemicals assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 29121.11 Da. The sequence of the 27 N-terminal residues of KERUS showed high homology with those of Bacillus keratinases. Optimal activity was achieved at pH 8 and 40 degrees C. Its thermoactivity and thermostability

were upgraded in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+. The enzyme was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), which suggests that it belongs to the serine protease family. KERUS displayed higher levels of hydrolysis, substrate specificity, and catalytic efficiency than NUE 12 MG and KOROPON (R) MK EG keratinases. The enzyme also exhibited powerful keratinolytic activity that made it able to accomplish the entire feather-biodegradation process on its own. The kerUS gene encoding KERUS was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The biochemical properties of the extracellular purified recombinant enzyme (rKERUS) were similar to those of native KERUS.

The two recombinant strains retained listeriolysin O hemolytic ac

The two recombinant strains retained listeriolysin O hemolytic activity, escaped into the cytosol niche and established replication in the macrophage-like RAW264.7 cell line; however, these strains showed decreased virulence in C57BL/6 mice. Histopathology revealed no obvious pathological changes following administration of the recombinant

strains to mice, indicating that they were significantly safer than parental https://www.selleckchem.com/products/cobimetinib-gdc-0973-rg7420.html strains. Moreover, intravenous vaccination of mice with the recombinant strains elicited specific Th1-type cellular immunity, splenocyte proliferation and effective CTL activity in vivo. Thus, attenuated L. monocytogenes strains can be used as effective vectors for delivering M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 and inducing a cellular immune response, suggesting that such vectors may be effective BAY 73-4506 as novel vaccines for preventing tuberculosis. (c) 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Levels of ethylene and polyamines (PAs) were measured during organogenesis of hypocotyl explants of two species of passion fruit (Passiflora cincinnata Masters and Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener ‘FB-100′) to better understand the relationships of these regulators and their influence on cell differentiation and morphogenesis. Moreover, histological investigation of

shoot ontogenesis was conducted to characterize the different events involved

in cell redifferentiation and regulation of PA and ethylene levels. A delay was observed in morphogenic responses of P. edulis f. flavicarpa as compared to P. cincinnata, and these changes coincided with production of elevated levels of polyamine and ethylene levels. During differentiation, cells showed high rates of expansion and elongation, and high ethylene levels were associated with high PA levels, suggesting that the two biosynthesis pathways were highly regulated. Moreover, their interaction might be an important factor for determining cell differentiation. The addition of PAs to the culture medium did not promote organogenesis; however, the incorporation of the PA selleck screening library inhibitor methylglyoxal bisguanylhydrazone in the culture medium reduced shoot bud differentiation, suggesting the need to maintaining a minimum level of PAs for morphogenic events to take place.”
“Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory [or simply "optimized CEPA(0)," OCEPA(0), for short] and its analytic energy gradients are presented. For variational optimization of the molecular orbitals for the OCEPA(0) method, a Lagrangian-based approach is used along with an orbital direct inversion of the iterative subspace algorithm. The cost of the method is comparable to that of CCSD [O(N-6) scaling] for energy computations.

CD226, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed i

CD226, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed in the majority of NK cells, T cells, monocytes, and platelets, Linsitinib and can be served as a co-stimulator that contributes to multiple innate and adaptive responses. However, there has been no study where either CD226 protein or DNA has been used as an adjuvant for vaccine development

The aim of this study was to develop a novel Ag85A DNA vaccine with CD226 as the genetic adjuvant to increase the immune efficacy induced by Ag85A. Oral vaccination with pcDNA3.1-Ag85A-CD226 DNA induced potent immune responses in mice. CD226 was an effective genetic adjuvant that improved the immune efficacy induced by Ag85A and enhanced the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and NK cells in mice. Th1 dominant cytokines (i.e. IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha), cellular immunity (i.e. CD4(+)IFN-gamma T+ cells and CD8(+)IFN-gamma T+ cells in splenocytes) and MLNs were also significantly elevated by pcDNA3.1-Ag85A-CD226 DNA vaccination. Our results suggest that CD226 is an effective adjuvant to enhance the immune efficacy induced by Ag85A. Our findings provide AR-13324 a new strategy for the development of a DNA vaccine co-expressing Ag85A and CD226. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This paper studies the problem of finite-time synchronization control for semi-Markov jump delayed neural networks with

randomly occurring uncertainties. The randomly occurring parameter uncertainties

follow certain mutually uncorrelated Bernoulli distributed white noise sequences. By employing a Markov switching Lyapunov functional and a weak infinitesimal operator, a criterion STA-9090 inhibitor is obtained to ensure that the resulting error system is stochastically finite-time stable and master system synchronizes with the slave system over a finite-time interval accordingly. Based on this, a clear expression for the desired controller is given by using a simple matrix decoupling. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by employing a simulation example. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Similarities between New World and Old World vultures have been interpreted to reflect a close relationship and to suggest the inclusion of both in Accipitridae (Falconiformes). However, deeper analyses indicated that the placement of the New World vultures (cathartids) in this Order is uncertain. Chromosome analysis has shown that cathartids retained a karyotype similar to the putative avian ancestor. In order to verify the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements in cathartids, we hybridized whole chromosome probes of two species (Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis) onto metaphases of Cathartes aura. The results showed that not only were the syntenic groups conserved between Gallus and C.

In this

article, we discuss how ichthyology is changing i

In this

article, we discuss how ichthyology is changing in this new era, and how the emerging phylogenomic approach has been used to study species diversification in relation to gene and genome duplications and to resolve the complex evolutionary history of ray-finned fishes.”
“The highly efficient transamidation of several primary, secondary, and tertiary amides with aliphatic and aromatic amines (primary and secondary) is described. The reaction is performed in the presence of a 5 mol % concentration of different hydrated salts FK228 in vivo of Fe(III), and the results show that the presence of water is crucial. The methodology was also applied to urea and phthalimide to demonstrate its versatility and wide substrate scope. An example of its use is an intramolecular application in the synthesis of 2,3-dihydro-5H-benzo[b]-1,4-thiazepin-4-one, which is the bicyclic core of diltiazem and structurally related drugs (Budriesi, R; Cosimelli, B.; loan, P.; Carosati, E.; Ugenti, M. P.; Spisani, R Curr. learn more Med. Chem. 2007, 14, 279-287). A plausible mechanism that explains the role of water is proposed on the basis of experimental

observations and previous mechanistic suggestions for transamidation reactions catalyzed by transition metals such as copper and aluminum. This methodology represents a significant improvement over other existing methods; it can be performed in air and with wet or technical grade solvents.”
“Formation of signaling protein complexes is crucial for proper signal transduction. Scaffold proteins in MAP kinase pathways are thought to facilitate complex assembly, thereby promoting efficient and specific signaling. To elucidate

the assembly mechanism of scaffold complexes in mammals, we attempted to rationally rewire JIP1-dependent JNK MAP kinase pathway via alternative assembly of JIP1 complex. When https://www.selleckchem.com/products/NVP-AUY922.html JIP1-JNK docking interaction in the complex was replaced with heterologous protein interaction domains, such as PDZ domains and JNK-binding domains, a functional scaffold complex was reconstituted, and JNK signaling was rescued. Reassembly of JIP1 complex using heterologous protein interactions was sufficient for restoring of JNK MAP kinase pathway to induce signaling responses, including JNK activation and cell death. These results suggest a simple yet modular mechanism for JIP1 scaffold assembly in mammals.”
“Objectives A potential “healthy shift worker effect” may bias the studied effect of shift work on health. The observed differences among shift and day workers in health behavior and health outcomes can be caused by: (i) primary selection, (ii) the influence from the shift work-related environment, and (iii) the impact of shift work. We aimed to study these potential sources.